Roentgenium is a chemical element with the symbol Rg and atomic number 111. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature. The most stable known isotope, roentgenium-282, has a half-life of 120 seconds, although the unconfirmed roentgenium-286 may have a longer half-life of about 10. 7 minutes. Roentgenium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany. It is named after the physicist Wilhelm Röntgen (also spelled Roentgen), who discovered X-rays. Only a few roentgenium atoms have ever been synthesized, and they have no current practical application.

In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 11 elements, although no chemical experiments have been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to gold in group 11 as the ninth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Roentgenium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, copper, silver, and gold, although it may show some differences from them. Roentgenium is thought to be a solid at room temperature and to have a metallic appearance in its regular state.

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Atomic properties

Atomic mass(280 u)

Atomic radii

Radius (empirical)(138 pm)
Covalent radius(121 pm)

Atomic shell

Electron configurationRn 5f14 6d9 7s2
Ionization energy(1st) (10.6 eV)
Shell model

Physical properties

Density(24.4 g·cm−3)
Molar volume(1.2·10-5 m3·mol−1)



Chemical properties

Oxidation state-

Other properties

Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structureBody-centered cubic
Goldschmidt Classificationsynthetic
Radioactivityextremely radioactive