Einsteinium is a synthetic element with the symbol Es and atomic number 99. Einsteinium is a member of the actinide series and it is the seventh transuranium element. It was named in honor of Albert Einstein.

Einsteinium was discovered as a component of the debris of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952. Its most common isotope, einsteinium-253 (half-life 20. 47 days), is produced artificially from decay of californium-253 in a few dedicated high-power nuclear reactors with a total yield on the order of one milligram per year. The reactor synthesis is followed by a complex process of separating einsteinium-253 from other actinides and products of their decay. Other isotopes are synthesized in various laboratories, but in much smaller amounts, by bombarding heavy actinide elements with light ions. Due to the small amounts of produced einsteinium and the short half-life of its most common isotope, there are no practical applications for it except basic scientific research. In particular, einsteinium was used to synthesize, for the first time, 17 atoms of the new element mendelevium in 1955.

Einsteinium is a soft, silvery, paramagnetic metal. Its chemistry is typical of the late actinides, with a preponderance of the +3 oxidation state; the +2 oxidation state is also accessible, especially in solids. The high radioactivity of einsteinium-253 produces a visible glow and rapidly damages its crystalline metal lattice, with released heat of about 1000 watts per gram. Difficulty in studying its properties is due to einsteinium-253's decay to berkelium-249 and then californium-249 at a rate of about 3% per day. The isotope of einsteinium with the longest half-life, einsteinium-252 (half-life 471. 7 days) would be more suitable for investigation of physical properties, but it has proven far more difficult to produce and is available only in minute quantities, and not in bulk. Einsteinium is the element with the highest atomic number which has been observed in macroscopic quantities in its pure form as einsteinium-253. Like all synthetic transuranium elements, isotopes of einsteinium are very radioactive and are considered highly dangerous to health on ingestion.

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Atomic properties

Atomic mass(252 u)

Atomic shell

Electron configurationRn 5f11 7s2
Ionization energy(1st) 6.36758 eV
(2nd) 12.2 eV
(3rd) 22.7 eV
(4th) 38.8 eV
(5th) 54.1 eV
Shell model

Physical properties

Density(13.5 g·cm−3)
Molar volume(2.852·10-5 m3·mol−1)


Melting point1,133 K
Boiling point(1,269 K)
Liquid range(136 K)

Heat and conductivity

Thermal conductivity(10 W·m-1·K-1)



Chemical properties

Oxidation state+2, +3, (+4)


Pauling scale1.3
Allred-Rochow scale1.2
Nagle scale1.14

Other properties

Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structureFace-centered cubic
Goldschmidt Classificationsynthetic
Superconductorwithout transition tempperature
Radioactivitysignificantly radioactive