Livermorium is a synthetic chemical element with the symbol Lv and has an atomic number of 116. It is an extremely radioactive element that has only been created in a laboratory setting and has not been observed in nature. The element is named after the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States, which collaborated with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, to discover livermorium during experiments conducted between 2000 and 2006. The name of the laboratory refers to the city of Livermore, California, where it is located, which in turn was named after the rancher and landowner Robert Livermore. The name was adopted by IUPAC on May 30, 2012. Four isotopes of livermorium are known, with mass numbers between 290 and 293 inclusive; the longest-lived among them is livermorium-293 with a half-life of about 60 milliseconds. A fifth possible isotope with mass number 294 has been reported but not yet confirmed.

In the periodic table, it is a p-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in group 16 as the heaviest chalcogen, but it has not been confirmed to behave as the heavier homologue to the chalcogen polonium. Livermorium is calculated to have some similar properties to its lighter homologues (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium), and be a post-transition metal, though it should also show several major differences from them.

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Atomic properties

Atomic mass(293 u)

Atomic radii

Radius (empirical)(183 pm)
Covalent radius(164 ±2 pm)

Atomic shell

Electron configurationRn 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4
Ionization energy(1st) (7.5 eV)
Shell model

Physical properties

Density(11.2 g·cm−3)
Molar volume(2.6·10-5 m3·mol−1)


Melting point(708.5 [637 … 780] K)
Boiling point(1,085 [1,035 … 1,135] K)
Liquid range(376.5 [255 … 498] K)



Chemical properties

Oxidation state-

Other properties

Natural occurrencesynthetic
Goldschmidt Classificationsynthetic
Radioactivityextremely radioactive